Carlos foi admitido na Igrexa católica e recibiu a extremaunción. Aínda que eran moitos os países que buscaran facerlle a guerra á católica Francia, Carlos II negociara en segredo con Luís XIV, tratando de alcanzar un acordo mediante o cal Inglaterra permanecería neutral a cambio de diñeiro. Clyde L. Gros, "The Anglo-Portuguese Marriage of 1662". Os celebrantes adoitaban adornarse con follas de carballo. Francia e as Provincias Unidas (a actual Holanda ou Países Baixos) aliáronse co goberno de Cromwell, forzando a Carlos a recorrer a España en demanda de axuda. O conflito comezou pola captura en Norteamérica, por parte dos ingleses, de Nova Ámsterdan (despois rebautizada co nome de Nova York, en honra do irmán de Carlos, James, duque de York, o futuro Xaime II de Inglaterra e VII de Escocia), pero en 1667 os holandeses lanzaron un ataque por sorpresa contra os ingleses na parte superior do río Támese, onde estaba amarrado o mellor da Royal Navy (Armada británica). Despite his son's diplomatic efforts to save him, King Charles I was beheaded in January 1649, and England became a republic. A cambio, Carlos acordaba proporcionar a Luís tropas e converterse ao Catolicismo "axiña que como o permitise o benestar dos seus dominios". [d], Under the Instrument of Government passed by Parliament, Cromwell was appointed Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1653, effectively placing the British Isles under military rule. Durante o mesmo ano, con todo, vendeu Dunquerque, unha posición estratéxica moito máis valiosa, ao rei francés Luís XIV por 40.000 £. , Thus through the last years of Charles's reign, his approach towards his opponents changed, and he was compared by Whigs to the contemporary Louis XIV of France, with his form of government in those years termed "slavery". Ao tempo, no entanto, gran parte de Escocia permaneceu fiel á causa monárquica. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance.  Plague cases ebbed over the winter, and Charles returned to London in February 1666. , Fearing that the Exclusion Bill would be passed, and bolstered by some acquittals in the continuing Plot trials, which seemed to him to indicate a more favourable public mood towards Catholicism, Charles dissolved the English Parliament, for a second time that year, in mid-1679. O mesmo ano, Carlos apoiou abertamente á católica Francia e iniciou a Terceira Guerra Anglo-holandesa.  Clifford, who had converted to Catholicism, resigned rather than take the oath, and died shortly after, possibly from suicide. Carlos partiu cara a Inglaterra, desembarcando en Dover o 23 de maio de 1660. The Conventicle and Five Mile Acts remained in effect for the remainder of Charles's reign.  Monck and his army marched into the City of London, and forced the Rump Parliament to re-admit members of the Long Parliament who had been excluded in December 1648, during Pride's Purge. Charles withdrew the Declaration, and also agreed to the Test Act, which not only required public officials to receive the sacrament under the forms prescribed by the Church of England, but also later forced them to denounce transubstantiation and the Catholic Mass as "superstitious and idolatrous". Ironic and cynical, Charles took pleasure in retailing stories which demonstrated the undetectable nature of any inherent majesty he possessed. O Acta de Conventículos (1664) prohibía as asembleas relixiosas de máis de cinco persoas, excepto as celebradas no seo da Igrexa de Inglaterra. Anthony Ashley Cooper, Primeiro Conde de Shaftesbury (previamente Barón Ashley e membro de "a Cábala", que se disolveu en 1672) propuxo unha Lei de Exclusión, que pretendía apartar ao duque de York da liña sucesoria.  The suddenness of his illness and death led to suspicion of poison in the minds of many, including one of the royal doctors; however, a more modern medical analysis has held that the symptoms of his final illness are similar to those of uraemia (a clinical syndrome due to kidney dysfunction). Outra tormenta política á que Carlos houbo de facer fronte foi a sucesión ao trono. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim. Se hizo célebre por sus numerosos hijos ilegítimos, de los que reconoció a catorce. En 1672 Carlos asinou a Declaración de Indulxencia, na que manifestaba a súa intención de suspender todas as leis que penalizaban aos católicos e a outros disidentes relixiosos.  Charles I surrendered into captivity in May 1646. Actualmente pódese contemplar a placa co nome do barco no Rijksmuseum de Ámsterdan.  The new so-called Convention Parliament assembled on 25 April 1660, and soon afterwards welcomed the Declaration of Breda, in which Charles promised lenience and tolerance. , Charles faced a political storm over his brother James, a Catholic, being next in line to the throne. Temendo que a Lei de Exclusión fose aprobada, Carlos disolveu o parlamento en decembro de 1679. Hutton says Charles was a popular king in his own day and a "legendary figure" in British history. Charles II was born at St James's Palace on 29 May 1630. Aínda que previamente fora favorable á Coroa, durante a década de 1670 o Parlamento Cabaleiro distanciouse dela polas guerras emprendidas polo rei e pola súa política relixiosa. " The claim to France was only nominal, and had been asserted by every English monarch since Edward III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled. A Cromwell sucedeulle o seu fillo, Richard Cromwell, como Lord Protector, pero se trataba dun home sen dotes para o mando nin desexo de exercelo e abdicou en 1659. Cando soubo que se estaba morrendo, un sacerdote, o Pai John Huddleston, foi enviado con gran discreción ás súas habitacións. Whose word no man relies on, The present Dukes of Buccleuch, Richmond, Grafton and St Albans descend from Charles in unbroken male line. One thousand pounds was a vast sum at the time, greater than an average workman's lifetime earnings. There would be pardons for nearly all his opponents except the regicides. However, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic led by Oliver Cromwell. Luís viuse obrigado a facer a paz coa Tripla Alianza, pero mantivo os seus plans bélicos. It sought to discourage non-conformity to the Church of England and passed several acts to secure Anglican dominance. During the civil and military unrest that followed, George Monck, the Governor of Scotland, was concerned that the nation would descend into anarchy. O Parlamento Cabaleiro —aínda que contrario a conceder tolerancia relixiosa aos católicos— opúxose á Declaración de Indulxencia baseándose en principios constitucionais —sostendo a incompetencia real para suspender leis de forma arbitraria— máis que políticos.  Earlier in 1668 he leased the islands of Bombay to the company for a nominal sum of £10 paid in gold. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands. Sucedeulle o seu irmán, o duque de York, que pasou a ser Xacobe II de Inglaterra e … Sir Wren construíu igualmente o Hospital Real de Chelsea, que Carlos fundou como fogar para soldados retirados en 1681, e no que se acha desde 1692 unha grande estatua de Carlos II vestido ao xeito da Roma clásica. A pesar dos esforzos do seu fillo por salvarlle, Carlos I foi executado en 1649, proclamándose a república en Inglaterra. Charles II was born at St James's Palace on 29 May 1630. In 1672, Charles issued the Royal Declaration of Indulgence, in which he purported to suspend all penal laws against Catholics and other religious dissenters. The crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties. Before Charles's restoration, the Navigation Acts of 1650 had hurt Dutch trade by giving English vessels a monopoly, and had started the First Dutch War (1652–1654). At or around his eighth birthday, he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested.. Sucedeulle o seu irmán, o duque de York, que pasou a ser Xacobe II de Inglaterra e Irlanda e VII de Escocia. Many of them were prosecuted and their estates seized, with Charles replacing judges and sheriffs at will and packing juries to achieve conviction. , On 3 September 1650, the Covenanters were defeated at the Battle of Dunbar by a much smaller force led by Oliver Cromwell. O Acta das Cinco Millas prohibía aos clérigos achegarse a menos de cinco millas dunha parroquia da que fosen expulsados. Durante a década de 1640, sendo aínda neno o Príncipe de Gales, Carlos I combateu ás tropas do parlamento e do puritanismo na Guerra Civil Inglesa. En 1670 Carlos, buscando resolver os seus problemas financeiros, acordou o Tratado de Dover, polo cal Luís XIV comprometíase a pagarlle 200.000 £ anuais. , Later in 1678, Danby was impeached by the House of Commons on the charge of high treason. Lord Danby, con todo, era anticatólico e animou a Oates a que fixese pública a súa acusación. , Charles suffered a sudden apoplectic fit on the morning of 2 February 1685, and died aged 54 at 11:45 am four days later at Whitehall Palace. He would not exile past enemies nor confiscate their wealth. Durante o resto do seu reinado, Carlos gobernou como monarca absoluto, sen parlamento. https://gl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Carlos_II_de_Inglaterra&oldid=5481644, licenza Creative Commons recoñecemento compartir igual 3.0, Charles Lennox, 1.° Duque de Richmond, George FitzRoy, 1.º Duque de Northumberland, James Scott, Duque de Monmouth, Charles FitzRoy, 2° Duque de Cleveland, Henry FitzRoy, 1.° Duque de Grafton, Charlotte Lee, Condessa de Lichfield, Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans, Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth, Mary Tudor, Barbara FitzRoy, Charlotte Jemima FitzRoy, Catherine FitzCharles, James de la Cloche, Mary Stuart, Anne Lennard, Condessa de Sussex, Cecelia FitzRoy, unnamed child1 Stuart, stillborn child Stuart, stillborn child3 Stuart e James Beauclerk, Lord Beauclerk. O Acta de Conventículos e a de as Cinco Millas permaneceron en vigor durante o resto do reinado de Carlos. , After a long spell of hot and dry weather through mid-1666, what later became known as the Great Fire of London started on 2 September 1666 in a bakehouse on Pudding Lane. La cuestión de quién debería ser su sucesor dio lugar a la guerra de As a result, in his lifetime he was often nicknamed "Old Rowley", the name of his favourite racehorse, notable as a stallion.. He was succeeded by his brother James.  Titus Oates was convicted and imprisoned for defamation. , Although previously favourable to the Crown, the Cavalier Parliament was alienated by the king's wars and religious policies during the 1670s. The power of the Cabal waned and that of Clifford's replacement, Lord Danby, grew. Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685)[c] was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland.  Nevertheless, the Scots remained Charles's best hope of restoration, and he was crowned King of Scotland at Scone Abbey on 1 January 1651. Carlos esforzouse por manter o Tratado en segredo, especialmente a cláusula concernente á súa conversión. Charles reluctantly promised that he would abide by the terms of a treaty agreed between him and the Scots Parliament at Breda, and support the Solemn League and Covenant, which authorised Presbyterian church governance across Britain. Durante o período de inestabilidade civil e militar que seguiu, George Monck, gobernador de Escocia, preocupado polo perigo de anarquía que corroía á nación, determinou restaurar a monarquía. The escapades of Charles after his defeat at the Battle of Worcester remained important to him throughout his life. Power passed to five politicians known collectively by a whimsical acronym as the Cabal—Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley (afterwards Earl of Shaftesbury) and Lauderdale. Como fixera tantas veces durante o seu reinado, Carlos II inclinouse ante os desexos dos seus adversarios, enviando a Lord Danby á Torre de Londres, onde permaneceu cinco anos.  Charles, with his family and court, fled London in July to Salisbury; Parliament met in Oxford. O novo Parlamento, constituído en marzo do mesmo ano, resultou ser francamente hostil ao rei. Dita suma era só indicativa do máximo que o rei estaba autorizado a retirar cada ano do Tesouro. He delighted and bored listeners with tales of his escape for many years. Outras partes do Código Clarendon incluían leis como o Acta de Corporación e o Acta de Uniformidade (1662). Louis agreed to aid him in the Third Anglo-Dutch War and pay him a pension, and Charles secretly promised to convert to Catholicism at an unspecified future date. Tras seis semanas de apuradas fugas, Carlos conseguiu abandonar Inglaterra.  Charles II is depicted extensively in art, literature and media. Dubbed the Cavalier Parliament, it was overwhelmingly Royalist and Anglican. He was captured and executed.  The Second Dutch War (1665–1667) was started by English attempts to muscle in on Dutch possessions in Africa and North America.  Charles had a laboratory among his many interests, where prior to his illness he had been experimenting with mercury. The prospect of a Catholic monarch was vehemently opposed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (previously Baron Ashley and a member of the Cabal, which had fallen apart in 1673). In 1659, the Rump Parliament was recalled and Richard resigned. Desgraciadamente para el, a Cámara dos Comúns resistiuse a consideralo implicado contra a súa vontade no escándalo, crendo en cambio que fora el o autor daquela política. Monck e o seu exército marcharon ata a cidade de Londres onde, con amplo apoio popular, forzaron ao chamado Parlamento Longo a disolverse. Carlos I (19 de noviembre de 1600 - 30 de enero de 1649) fue rey de Inglaterra, Escocia e Irlanda desde el 27 de marzo de 1625 hasta su ejecución en 1649. Aínda non está claro se Carlos tiña ou non intención de facer honra a devandita cláusula. )", "Charles II, 1672: An Act for preventing Dangers which may happen from Popish Recusants", "Charles II, 1678: (Stat. Dado que o Parlamento Cabaleiro era abrumadoramente realista, Carlos non viu razón para disolvelo nin convocar novas eleccións xerais durante dezasete anos. Algúns dos rexicidas foron executados en 1660; a outros sentencioúselles a cadea perpetua. The official style of Charles II was "Charles the Second, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. Theatre licences granted by Charles required that female parts be played by "their natural performers", rather than by boys as was often the practice before; and Restoration literature celebrated or reacted to the restored court, which included libertines such as John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester. Coñecido como o Alegre Monarca, Carlos II favoreceu as artes e foi menos restritivo que os seus predecesores. On 14 May, he was proclaimed king in Dublin. Foi durante o seu reinado cando se desenvolveron os partidos Whig (liberal) e Tory (conservador). , After the death of Cromwell in 1658, Charles's initial chances of regaining the Crown seemed slim; Cromwell was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son, Richard. His parents were Charles I, who ruled the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Henrietta Maria, the sister of the French king Louis XIII. The Abhorrers—those who thought the Exclusion Bill was abhorrent—were named Tories (after a term for dispossessed Irish Catholic bandits), while the Petitioners—those who supported a petitioning campaign in favour of the Exclusion Bill—were called Whigs (after a term for rebellious Scottish Presbyterians).  The people were seized with an anti-Catholic hysteria; judges and juries across the land condemned the supposed conspirators; numerous innocent individuals were executed. - Con María "Moll" Davis, soada actriz e cantante: Na actualidade o duque de Buccleuch e Queensberry, o duque de Richmond e Gordon, o duque de Grafton e o duque de St. Albans descenden, todos eles, de Carlos II por liña directa masculina.  Her son, James Crofts (afterwards Duke of Monmouth and Duke of Buccleuch), was one of Charles's many illegitimate children who became prominent in British society.. A esposa do rei, a raíña Catalina, non puidera darlle un herdeiro a Carlos; os seus catro embarazos foran, ou ben abortos, ou fillos nados mortos. Línea de sucesión al trono británica: ¿quién sucederá a Isabel II de Inglaterra? Debido ao caos que trouxo consigo a Guerra Civil Inglesa, nunca investíuselle solemnemente coas chamadas Honras do Principado de Gales (diadema, anel, espada, manto etc.).. The major foreign policy issue of his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. Disillusioned by the Covenanters, in October Charles attempted to escape from them and rode north to join with an Engager force, an event which became known as "the Start", but within two days the Presbyterians had caught up with and recovered him. However, with insufficient funds voted by Parliament, Charles was forced to gradually disband his troops. Through six weeks of narrow escapes Charles managed to flee England in disguise, landing in Normandy on 16 October, despite a reward of £1,000 on his head, risk of death for anyone caught helping him and the difficulty in disguising Charles, who, at over 6 ft (1.8 m), was unusually tall. Charles's coat of arms as Prince of Wales was the royal arms (which he later inherited), differenced by a label of three points Argent. He was the playboy monarch, naughty but nice, the hero of all who prized urbanity, tolerance, good humour, and the pursuit of pleasure above the more earnest, sober, or material virtues. O Parlamento Cabaleiro tamén se negou a financiar a Guerra Anglo-holandesa, obrigando a Carlos a asinar a paz en 1674. Carlos II (Londres, 29 de maio de 1630 – Londres, 6 de fevereiro de 1685) foi o Rei da Inglaterra, Escócia e Irlanda de 1660 até sua morte. , At The Hague, Charles had a brief affair with Lucy Walter, who later falsely claimed that they had secretly married. His other mistresses included Moll Davis, Nell Gwyn, Elizabeth Killigrew, Catherine Pegge, Lucy Walter and Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth.  In 1670, Charles granted control of the entire Hudson Bay drainage basin to the Hudson's Bay Company by royal charter, and named the territory Rupert's Land, after his cousin Prince Rupert of the Rhine, the company's first Governor. Although Charles and Parliament granted amnesty to nearly all of Cromwell's supporters in the Act of Indemnity and Oblivion, 50 people were specifically excluded. Chegou a Londres o 29 de maio, a que se considera data oficial da Restauración, e que coincidía co trixésimo aniversario de Carlos. Desafiando a vontade do rei, o Parlamento decretou que a disolución da asemblea non interrompía unha moción de censura.  In Ireland, a convention had been called earlier in the year, and had already declared for Charles.  At the Battle of the Dunes in 1658, as part of the larger Spanish force, Charles's army of around 2,000 clashed with Commonwealth troops fighting with the French. , Since 1640, Portugal had been fighting a war against Spain to restore its independence after a dynastic union of sixty years between the crowns of Spain and Portugal. The next day the couple were married at Portsmouth in two ceremonies—a Catholic one conducted in secret, followed by a public Anglican service. Louis made peace with the Triple Alliance, but he continued to maintain his aggressive intentions towards the Netherlands. O Parlamento ofreceu unha recompensa de 1000 £ pola cabeza do rei e impuxo pena de morte a calquera que prestáselle axuda. O 5 de febreiro de 1649, Carlos II foi proclamado Rei dos Escoceses en Edimburgo, baixo a promesa de que convalidaría a Solemne Liga e Pacto. O seu pai, Carlos I, foi executado en 1649 tras a Guerra Civil Inglesa; a monarquía foi entón abolida e o país converteuse nunha república baixo o mando de Oliver Cromwell, o "Lord Protector". Aos cadáveres de Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton e John Bradshaw sometéuselles á indignidade dunha execución póstuma. A algúns políticos protestantes como Algernon Sydney e Lord William Russell implicóuselles na trama e foron executados por alta traizón, por máis que as probas fosen moi febles. , The restrictions against royalist candidates and voters were widely ignored, and the elections resulted in a House of Commons that was fairly evenly divided on political grounds between Royalists and Parliamentarians and on religious grounds between Anglicans and Presbyterians.  On 23 June 1661, a marriage treaty was signed; England acquired Catherine's dowry of Tangier (in North Africa) and the Seven islands of Bombay (the latter having a major influence on the development of the British Empire in India), together with trading privileges in Brazil and the East Indies, religious and commercial freedom in Portugal and two million Portuguese crowns (about £300,000); while Portugal obtained military and naval support against Spain and liberty of worship for Catherine. Carlos foi tamén o mecenas persoal de Sir Christopher Wren, o arquitecto que axudou a reconstruír Londres despois do Grande Incendio de Londres de 1666. Carlos naceu no palacio de St. James, o 29 de maio de 1630, sendo o segundo fillo home —pero primoxénito de facto, pois o fillo maior morreu ao nacer en 1629— dos nove fillos de Carlos I de Inglaterra e de Henriqueta María de Francia. O matrimonio, infortunadamente, non tivo descendencia.  It remains unclear if Charles ever seriously intended to convert. Carlos II retirou a Declaración e mostrouse de acordo co "Acta de Exame", que non só requiría dos funcionarios públicos que recibisen a Eucaristía na forma prescrita pola Igrexa de Inglaterra, senón que os forzaba a denunciar certos ensinos da Igrexa católica como supersticiosas e idólatras. As a result of the Second Dutch War, Charles dismissed Lord Clarendon, whom he used as a scapegoat for the war. Como consecuencia, o Parlamento decretou de inmediato que Carlos II fora o Soberano lexítimo desde a execución de Carlos I en 1649. Anteriormente, en 1668, alugara as illas de Bombai pola irrisoria cantidade de dez libras esterlinas pagadoiras en ouro. News of the failed plot was leaked. Empobrecido, Carlos non logrou reunir suficientes apoios como para supor un desafío serio ao Lord Protector. Charles's wife Queen Catherine was unable to produce an heir; her four pregnancies had ended in miscarriages and stillbirths in 1662, February 1666, May 1668 and June 1669. Luís debía fornecerlle 6.000 soldados para suprimir aos que se opuxesen a súa conversión.  John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, wrote more lewdly of Charles: Restless he rolls from whore to whore  The Portuguese territories that Catherine brought with her as a dowry proved too expensive to maintain; Tangier was abandoned in 1684. When a new Parliament assembled at Oxford in March 1681, Charles dissolved it for a fourth time after just a few days. , Meanwhile, by a series of five charters, Charles granted the East India Company the rights to autonomous government of its territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops, to form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over its possessions in the Indies. For doubts over his intention to convert before 1685 see, for example. Intentou recrutar un exército, pero fracasou debido ás súas penurias económicas. The grant, however, proved to be insufficient for most of Charles's reign.  Diana, Princess of Wales, was descended from two of Charles's illegitimate sons: the Dukes of Grafton and Richmond. To save Danby from the impeachment trial, Charles dissolved the Cavalier Parliament in January 1679. Carlos II foi un mecenas das artes e as ciencias. A merry monarch, scandalous and poor.. (2015). In 1648, during the Second English Civil War, Charles moved to The Hague, where his sister Mary and his brother-in-law William II, Prince of Orange, seemed more likely to provide substantial aid to the royalist cause than his mother's French relations.  In the days between his collapse and his death, Charles endured a variety of torturous treatments including bloodletting, purging and cupping in hopes of effecting a recovery. However, the new Lord Protector had little experience of either military or civil administration. O príncipe acompañou ao seu pai durante a batalla de Edgehill e, con só quince anos, participou nas batallas de 1645. Non-academic authors have concentrated mainly on his social and cultural world, emphasising his charm, affability, worldliness, tolerance, turning him into one of the most popular of all English monarchs in novels, plays and films.. (Eds.). Era este un acordo entre Inglaterra e Escocia que impedía remodelar a Igrexa de Escocia a imaxe da Anglicana, debendo manterse no Presbiterianismo —forma de goberno eclesiástico preferida pola maioría dos escoceses— a diferenza da Igrexa de Inglaterra que mantivo a súa xerarquía episcopal. Protestant conspirators formulated the Rye House Plot, a plan to murder him and the Duke of York as they returned to London after horse races in Newmarket. A maior parte do tempo, a cantidade dispoñible nas arcas públicas foi moito menor.  However, the royalist fleet that came under Charles's control was not used to any advantage, and did not reach Scotland in time to join up with the royalist Engager army of the Duke of Hamilton before it was defeated at the Battle of Preston by the Parliamentarians. Charles, a patron of the arts and sciences, founded the Royal Observatory and supported the Royal Society, a scientific group whose early members included Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle and Sir Isaac Newton. Os que estaban á cabeza fuxiron antes de que se filtrasen noticias sobre a conspiración. Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) [c] was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland.He was King of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and King of England, Scotland and Ireland from the 1660 Restoration of the monarchy until his death in 1685. There would be liberty of conscience and Anglican church policy would not be harsh. Numerous accounts of his adventures were published, particularly in the immediate aftermath of the Restoration. Charles was one of the most popular and beloved kings of England, known as the Merry Monarch, in reference to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and the general relief at the return to normality after over a decade of rule by Cromwell and the Puritans.  At birth, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, along with several other associated titles. , The English Parliament granted him an annual income to run the government of £1.2 million, generated largely from customs and excise duties. 1658? To destroy opposition in London, Charles first disenfranchised many Whigs in the 1682 municipal elections, and in 1683 the London charter was forfeited. Charles lived a life of leisure at Saint-Germain-en-Laye near Paris, living on a grant from Louis XIV of 600 livres a month. Lord Danby and the surviving Catholic lords held in the Tower were released and the king's Catholic brother, James, acquired greater influence at court. The anniversary of the Restoration (which was also Charles's birthday)—29 May—was recognised in England until the mid-nineteenth century as Oak Apple Day, after the Royal Oak in which Charles hid during his escape from the forces of Oliver Cromwell. A nova asemblea, denominada Parlamento da Convención, pouco logo da súa constitución o 25 de abril de 1660, tivo noticias da Declaración de Breda (8 de maio de 1660), na que Carlos acordaba, entre outras cousas, perdoar a moitos dos inimigos do seu pai. During the 1640s, when Charles was still young, his father fought Parliamentary and Puritan forces in the English Civil War. Above all, Charles promised to rule in cooperation with Parliament. , Charles had no legitimate children, but acknowledged a dozen by seven mistresses, including five by Barbara Villiers, Lady Castlemaine, for whom the Dukedom of Cleveland was created. , 17th-century monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland, Coat of arms of Charles II as king (outside Scotland), Coat of arms of Charles II used as king in Scotland, The traditional date of the Restoration marking the first assembly of King and Parliament together since the abolition of the English monarchy in 1649.